Friday, February 1, 2008

Study Guide: Group 20

Here is the latest Study Guide! I have not provided English translations, since those are easy enough to find by consulting versions of the Bible in English. Instead, I have tried to call attention to the various grammatical features of the verses, along with interesting vocabulary items, the importance of a specific Biblical context, etc.

You will find more Study Guides at the Vulgate Verses wiki.

These verses contain fourth declension nouns:

226. Note the use of the postpositive particles quidem and vero to coordinate these two statements: Spiritus quidem (est) promptus; caro vero (est) infirma.

227. This verse is from the apocryphal book of Wisdom. The Greek version of this text reads rather differently from the Latin: φιλάνθρωπον πνεῦμα σοφία, "wisdom is a loving spirit," which in Latin would be benignus spiritus est sapientia.

228. These words have become part of the Rosary prayer tradition. You can read more at wikipedia.

229. This verse is from the apocryphal book of Wisdom. Notice how the noun phrase, which is the subject, bonorum laborum fructus wraps around the predicate, gloriosus est. This kind of word order is effortless in Latin, but can be challenging for English-speakers.

230. Although the word iustitia could be either nominative singular or ablative singular, the context of the verse, with the words bonitate and veritate show that this is definitely an ablative form.

231. The word vere, "truly," is an adverb, formed from the same root as the adjective verus, "true." Although you cannot always predict how adverbs will be formed in Latin, the -e ending is a common one. Be careful with the word caro; this is not from the adjective carus! Instead, it is a feminine third declension noun, caro (carnis)), hence the feminine adjective, mea.

232. Notice that the verb comes first, est, followed by the subject, regnum Dei, which is then followed by the predicate noun phrase. This kind of word order is natural in Latin, but can be confusing for English speakrs.

233. This verse is from the apocryphal book of Sirach. The adverb valde, like the adverb vere (see Verse #231 above), is from an adjective: validus, meaning "strong, vigorous," so the adverb valde means "strongly, vigorously, extremely, very."

234. This is from the vision of Elijah (Latin Elias) being taken up into heaven in a chariot of fire. You can read an article about the chariot of fire at the blog.

235. This is a question posed by King Artaxerxes to the prophet Nehemiah, who is grieving because of the desolation fo the city of Jerusalem.

236. Notice how how the noun phrase eventus proelii wraps around the verb, est, with the predicate adjective, varius coming in first position. The Latin word e-ventus has the same formation as the corresponding English word, "out-come."

237. The adjective unus here is used to mean "the same," much as in the English expression "one and the same."

238. This verse is from the apocryphal book of Wisdom. Notice how this verse uses the words unus and similis to express the same idea, that everyone has the same introitus into life and everyone has the same exitus from life. In other words, each person is born and each person dies; the process of birth and the process of death is universal.